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50 种常见的认知偏差中文版

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2022-04-13 / 0 评论 / 0 点赞 / 4,555 阅读 / 6,500 字 / 正在检测是否收录...
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50 种常见的认知偏差中文版

  1. 基本归因错误:我们根据他人的个性或基本特征来判断他人,但我们根据情况来判断自己。
  2. 自私偏见:我们的失败是因情况而定的,但我们的成功是我们的责任。
  3. 群体内偏爱:我们偏爱群体内的人,而不是群体外的人。
  4. 跟风效应:想法、时尚和信念随着越来越多的人采用而不断增长。
  5. 群体迷思:由于渴望团队一致与和谐,我们会做出非理性的决定,通常是为了尽量减少冲突。
  6. 光环效应:如果你认为一个人具有积极的特质,那么这种积极的印象就会蔓延到他们的其他特质中。(这也适用于负面特征。)
  7. 道德运气:积极的结果会带来更好的道德地位;由于负面结果,道德地位会变得更差。
  8. 虚假共识:我们相信同意我们观点的人比实际情况多。
  9. 知识的诅咒:一旦我们知道某件事,我们就假设其他人也知道它。
  10. 聚光灯效应:我们高估了人们对我们的行为和外表的关注程度。
  11. 可用性启发式:我们依靠在做出判断时立即想到的例子。
  12. 防御性归因:作为一个暗自担心自己容易遭受严重事故的目击者,如果我们与受害者有联系,我们就会减少对受害者的责备。
  13. 公正世界假说:我们倾向于相信世界是公正的;因此,我们认为不公正行为是应得的。
  14. 朴素现实主义:我们相信我们观察到的是客观现实,而其他人是非理性的、无知的或有偏见的。
  15. 天真的犬儒主义:我们相信我们观察到了客观现实,并且其他人的自我中心偏见比他们实际的意图/行为更高。
  16. 福勒效应(又名巴纳姆效应):我们很容易将我们的个性归因于模糊的陈述,即使它们可以适用于广泛的人。
  17. 邓宁-克鲁格效应:你知道的越少,你就越自信。你知道的越多,你就越不自信。
  18. 锚定:我们在做出决策时严重依赖引入的第一条信息。
  19. 自动化偏见:我们依赖自动化系统,有时过于相信自动纠正实际正确的决策。
  20. 谷歌效应(又名数字失忆症):我们往往会忘记在搜索引擎中轻松查找的信息。
  21. 反应:我们的做法与别人告诉我们的相反,尤其是当我们意识到个人自由受到威胁时。
  22. 确认偏差:我们倾向于寻找并记住能够证实我们看法的信息。
  23. 适得其反效应:反驳证据有时会产生不必要的效果,从而证实我们的信念。
  24. 第三人称效应:我们相信其他人比我们自己更容易受到大众媒体消费的影响。
  25. 信念偏差:我们判断一个论点的强度,不是看它对结论的支持程度,而是看这个结论在我们心目中的合理程度。
  26. 可用性级联:与我们对社会接受的需求相关,集体信仰通过公开重复获得更多可信度。
  27. 衰落主义:我们倾向于将过去浪漫化,并对未来持消极态度,认为社会/机构总体上正在衰落。
  28. 现状偏见:我们倾向于希望事情保持不变;相对于基线的变化被视为损失。
  29. 沉没成本谬误(又名承诺升级):即使我们面临负面结果,我们也会在那些让我们付出代价的事情上投入更多,而不是改变我们的投资。
  30. 赌徒谬误:我们认为未来的可能性受到过去事件的影响。
  31. 零风险偏差:我们更愿意将小风险降低到零,即使我们可以通过另一种选择整体降低更多风险。
  32. 框架效应:我们经常从相同的信息中得出不同的结论,具体取决于它的呈现方式。
  33. 刻板印象:我们普遍相信一个群体的成员将具有某些特征,尽管没有关于个人的信息。
  34. 外群体同质性偏见:我们认为外群体成员是同质的,而我们自己的内群体成员则更加多样化。
  35. 权威偏见:我们信任权威人物的观点,也更容易受到其影响。
  36. 安慰剂效应:如果我们相信某种治疗有效,它通常会产生很小的生理效应。
  37. 幸存者偏差:我们倾向于关注那些在过程中幸存下来的事情,而忽视那些失败的事情。
  38. 精神过速:我们对时间的感知取决于创伤、吸毒和体力消耗。
  39. 琐碎法则(又名“自行车脱落”):我们对琐碎问题给予不成比例的重视,同时往往避免更复杂的问题。
  40. 蔡加尼克效应:我们对未完成的任务的记忆多于已完成的任务。
  41. 宜家效应:我们对自己部分创造的事物给予更高的价值。
  42. 本·富兰克林效应:我们喜欢帮忙;如果我们已经帮过某人一个忙,那么我们更有可能再帮别人一个忙,而不是接受_过_那个人的帮忙。
  43. 旁观者效应:周围的人越多,我们帮助受害者的可能性就越小。
  44. 暗示性:我们,尤其是孩子,有时会将提问者提出的想法误认为是记忆。
  45. 错误记忆:我们将想象误认为是真实记忆。
  46. 密码记忆症:我们将真实的记忆误认为是想象。
  47. 聚类错觉:我们在随机数据中发现模式和“聚类”。
  48. 悲观偏见:我们有时会高估不良结果的可能性。
  49. 乐观偏见:我们有时对好的结果过于乐观。
  50. 盲点偏见:我们不认为自己有偏见,而且我们更多地看到别人而不是我们自己。

50 种常见的认知偏差英文原版

  1. Fundamental Attribution Error: We judge others on their personality or fundamental character, but we judge ourselves on the situation.
  2. Self-Serving Bias: Our failures are situational, but our successes are our responsibility.
  3. In-Group Favoritism: We favor people who are in our in-group as opposed to an out-group.
  4. **Bandwagon Effect: **Ideas, fads, and beliefs grow as more people adopt them.
  5. Groupthink: Due to a desire for conformity and harmony in the group, we make irrational decisions, often to minimize conflict.
  6. Halo Effect: If you see a person as having a positive trait, that positive impression will spill over into their other traits. (This also works for negative traits.)
  7. Moral Luck: Better moral standing happens due to a positive outcome; worse moral standing happens due to a negative outcome.
  8. False Consensus: We believe more people agree with us than is actually the case.
  9. Curse of Knowledge: Once we know something, we assume everyone else knows it, too.
  10. Spotlight Effect: We overestimate how much people are paying attention to our behavior and appearance.
  11. Availability Heuristic: We rely on immediate examples that come to mind while making judgments.
  12. Defensive Attribution: As a witness who secretly fears being vulnerable to a serious mishap, we will blame the victim less if we relate to the victim.
  13. Just-World Hypothesis: We tend to believe the world is just; therefore, we assume acts of injustice are deserved.
  14. Naïve Realism: We believe that we observe objective reality and that other people are irrational, uninformed, or biased.
  15. Naïve Cynicism: We believe that we observe objective reality and that other people have a higher egocentric bias than they actually do in their intentions/actions.
  16. Forer Effect (aka Barnum Effect): We easily attribute our personalities to vague statements, even if they can apply to a wide range of people.
  17. Dunning-Kruger Effect: The less you know, the more confident you are. The more you know, the less confident you are.
  18. Anchoring: We rely heavily on the first piece of information introduced when making decisions.
  19. Automation Bias: We rely on automated systems, sometimes trusting too much in the automated correction of actually correct decisions.
  20. **Google Effect (aka Digital Amnesia): **We tend to forget information that’s easily looked up in search engines.
  21. Reactance: We do the opposite of what we’re told, especially when we perceive threats to personal freedoms.
  22. Confirmation Bias: We tend to find and remember information that confirms our perceptions.
  23. Backfire Effect: Disproving evidence sometimes has the unwarranted effect of confirming our beliefs.
  24. Third-Person Effect: We believe that others are more affected by mass media consumption than we ourselves are.
  25. Belief Bias: We judge an argument’s strength not by how strongly it supports the conclusion but how plausible the conclusion is in our own minds.
  26. **Availability Cascade: **Tied to our need for social acceptance, collective beliefs gain more plausibility through public repetition.
  27. Declinism: We tent to romanticize the past and view the future negatively, believing that societies/institutions are by and large in decline.
  28. Status Quo Bias: We tend to prefer things to stay the same; changes from the baseline are considered to be a loss.
  29. Sunk Cost Fallacy (aka Escalation of Commitment): We invest more in things that have cost us something rather than altering our investments, even if we face negative outcomes.
  30. Gambler’s Fallacy: We think future possibilities are affected by past events.
  31. Zero-Risk Bias: We prefer to reduce small risks to zero, even if we can reduce more risk overall with another option.
  32. **Framing Effect: **We often draw different conclusions from the same information depending on how it’s presented.
  33. Stereotyping: We adopt generalized beliefs that members of a group will have certain characteristics, despite not having information about the individual.
  34. Outgroup Homogeneity Bias: We perceive out-group members as homogeneous and our own in-groups as more diverse.
  35. Authority Bias: We trust and are more often influenced by the opinions of authority figures.
  36. Placebo Effect: If we believe a treatment will work, it often will have a small physiological effect.
  37. Survivorship Bias: We tend to focus on those things that survived a process and overlook ones that failed.
  38. Tachypsychia: Our perceptions of time shift depending on trauma, drug use, and physical exertion.
  39. Law of Triviality (aka “Bike-Shedding”): We give disproportionate weight to trivial issues, often while avoiding more complex issues.
  40. Zeigarnik Effect: We remember incomplete tasks more than completed ones.
  41. IKEA Effect: We place higher value on things we partially created ourselves.
  42. Ben Franklin Effect: We like doing favors; we are more likely to do another favor for someone if we’ve already done a favor for them than if we had received a favor from that person.
  43. Bystander Effect: The more other people are around, the less likely we are to help a victim.
  44. Suggestibility: We, especially children, sometimes mistake ideas suggested by a questioner for memories.
  45. False Memory: We mistake imagination for real memories.
  46. Cryptomnesia: We mistake real memories for imagination.
  47. Clustering Illusion: We find patterns and “clusters” in random data.
  48. Pessimism Bias: We sometimes overestimate the likelihood of bad outcomes.
  49. Optimism Bias: We sometimes are over-optimistic about good outcomes.
  50. Blind Spot Bias: We don’t think we have bias, and we see it others more than ourselves.
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